It now is known that the Neanderthals were painting in the European caves. Some earth pigments were available to the artists.
In the following image, you can see freshly mulled yellow ochre (iron oxide) in a synthetic petrolatum I have described in a previous uploaded post.
The ochre mulls nicely in the vehicle and has been applied to bristol cardstock ( no undercoat).
left: the natural halloysite ( nanotubular) kaolin clay ( from Idaho, USA) and right: no clay added.
This clay clearly prevents paint streaks which may be difficult to see in the lighting I had when capturing the image.
The synthetic ( from renewables) is an interesting vehicle for oil-based paints which may interest artists .